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OCR A Level Biology A (H420/03): Unified biology …

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OCR 2016 [601/4260/1] DC (...) H420/03 Turn over Oxford Cambridge and RSA A Level Biology A H420/03 Unified biology Sample Question Paper Date Morning/Afternoon Time allowed: 1 hour 30 minutes You must have: the Insert You may use: a scientific or graphical calculator * 0 0 0 0 0 0 * First name Last name Centre number Candidate number INSTRUCTIONS Use black ink. You may use an HB pencil for graphs and diagrams. Complete the boxes above with your name, centre number and candidate number. Answer all the questions. Write your answer to each question in the space provided. Additional paper may be used if required but you must clearly show your candidate number, centre number and question number(s). Do not write in the bar codes. INFORMATION The total mark for this paper is 70. The marks for each question are shown in brackets [ ]. Quality of extended responses will be assessed in questions marked with an asterisk (*). This document consists of 16 pages. SPECIMEN 2 OCR 2016 H420/03 Answer all the questions. 1 A group of students set up a simple respirometer, as shown in Fig. , and used it to determine the rate of respiration in germinating mung beans. They placed a small muslin bag of soda lime into the syringe and then added five germinating mung beans, which were held in place with the syringe plunger. The students measured the movement of the red fluid in the capillary tube. After each set of readings the plunger was reset to return the fluid to its original position. Fig. The results are shown in Table Time (s) Distance moved by the red fluid in capillary tube (mm) 1 2 3 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 Table (a) Give one limitation of using this method to investigate respiration rate. ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ .................................. [1] 20 cm length of capillary tubing red fluid syringe germinating mung beans muslin bag of soda lime SPECIMEN3 OCR 2016 H420/03 Turn over (b) Read the procedure carefully. Identify one variable that had not been controlled in this experiment and suggest an improvement to control that variable. Variable ........................................ ........................................ ............................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ [2] (c) Describe how you would add the red fluid to the capillary tube at the start of the experiment. ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . [1] (d) The data shows an anomalous result at 60 seconds. Explain why the result is considered to be anomalous and describe one correct way of dealing with this type of result. ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . [2] (e) Using the data the student obtained, calculate the mean rate of respiration for germinating mung beans between 90 and 150 seconds. [1] (f) What additional information would be needed to calculate: (i) the volume of oxygen taken up by the seeds. ........................................ ........................................ ........................... [1] (ii) the oxygen uptake for this batch of seeds to be comparable with data from another type of bean. ........................................ ........................................ ........................... [1] SPECIMEN 4 OCR 2016 H420/03 (g)* The group of students wanted to find out if the rate of respiration of a small invertebrate animal was comparable to that of the mung beans. Adapt the procedure used to investigate the respiration rate of a small invertebrate, such as a woodlouse or caterpillar, with that of mung beans. Comment on the results you might expect from this experiment and the conclusions you might draw. ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ..................................... [6] SPECIMEN5 OCR 2016 H420/03 Turn over 2 This question is about the impact of potentially harmful chemicals and microorganisms. (a) (i) Salts that a plant needs, such as nitrates and phosphates, are taken into root hair cells by active transport. For which macromolecule does a plant need both nitrogen and phosphorus? ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [1] (ii) Flooding of fields by seawater can damage crops. Seawater contains dissolved salts, including sodium chloride. How would flooding affect soil water potential? ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [1] (iii) Sodium chloride in solution dissociates into Na+ and Cl . Explain how the Casparian strip prevents these ions from reaching the xylem of the plant by the apoplast pathway. ........................................ ........................................ ................................. ........................................ ........................................ ................................. ........................................ ........................................ ................................. ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [2] (b) Plague is caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. (i) The bacterium is a rod-shaped cell that is approximately 3 m long. Yersinia pestis is viewed using a light microscope with a magnification of 1250. What would be the length of the cell in the image produced by this microscope? [2] (ii) Photographs taken of the image obtained by the light microscope could be further enlarged using a projector. Why might the enlarged image be unable to tell us more about the structure of Yersinia pestis? ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [1] SPECIMEN 6 OCR 2016 H420/03 (iii) Outbreaks of plague still occur occasionally. Plague is transmitted by several methods including droplet infection, close contact between people and fleas moving between infected rats and people. Suggest two ways to minimise the spread of an outbreak of plague. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [2] (c) Herbicides work in a number of different ways. (i) Some herbicides, known as phenoxy herbicides, mimic the action of the auxin, indoleacetic acid (IAA). What is the normal action of IAA in plant cells? ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [1] (ii) The herbicide atrazine works by disabling plastoquinone, one of the proton pumps in photosystem II. Explain how atrazine would kill a susceptible plant. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ ......................... [5] SPECIMEN7 OCR 2016 H420/03 Turn over 3 The effect of wave action on the height of the shells of the dog whelk (Nucella lapillus) was investigated by comparing an exposed shore and a sheltered shore. A random sampling technique was used to collect 50 shells from an exposed shore. The shell height was measured from the base to the conical tip. The whelk was returned to its location. The process was repeated for the sheltered shore. All the results were recorded in Table Location Height of shell (mm) Range Mean SD Sheltered shore 26 28 27 26 28 23 28 23 26 28 29 29 29 29 29 28 29 29 29 29 30 31 30 29 32 29 30 29 30 32 33 35 34 32 35 32 34 32 33 35 37 39 38 37 39 35 38 36 37 39 16 Exposed shore 15 17 16 15 23 15 23 16 13 15 17 24 18 17 17 14 17 18 16 17 19 19 20 24 18 20 19 20 18 20 23 14 24 14 21 20 23 17 21 23 25 25 28 26 25 27 25 28 25 27 15 Table (a) The t test can be used to determine the significance of the differences between shell height on the exposed shore and the sheltered shore. (i) Calculate the t value for the data using the formula: 22212121nsnsxxt where, 21xx is the difference in mean values of sample 1 and sample 2 s12 and s22 are the squares of the standard deviations of the samples n1 and n2 are the sample sizes. Give your answer to two decimal places. [2] SPECIMEN 8 OCR 2016 H420/03 (ii) The null hypothesis is that there is no difference between the means of the two shell populations. The critical values at 98 degrees of freedom are shown in Table Degrees of freedom p = p = p = p = 98 Table Using the table of critical values, explain whether the student would be able to accept or reject the null hypothesis as a result of the t value you calculated in part (i). ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [1] (b) The students organised the data from Table into classes. The organised data is shown in Table Sheltered shore Exposed shore Height (mm) Tally Total Height (mm) Tally Total 23 26 IIII 5 11 14 IIII 4 27 30 IIII IIII IIII IIII II 22 15 18 IIII II 7 31 34 IIII IIII I 11 19 22 IIII IIII II 12 35 38 IIII IIII 9 23 26 IIII IIII II 12 39 42 III 3 27 30 IIII 4 Table Plot the most suitable graph of the data given in Table SPECIMEN9 OCR 2016 H420/03 Turn over [4] SPECIMEN 10 OCR 2016 H420/03 (c) Use the data and graph to discuss any correlation between the height of the whelk shell and the type of shore. Suggest explanations for your findings. ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ ................................. [3] (d) Suggest a limitation of the procedure used to gather the data in this experiment and recommend how you could improve this. ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................. [2] (e) How could the students improve the accuracy of their data? ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................. [1] (f) Discuss the validity of the conclusions you have made during this experiment. ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................. [3] SPECIMEN11 OCR 2016 H420/03 Turn over 4 Botulism is a condition resulting from the action of botulinum toxin. The main symptom of botulism is skeletal muscle weakness, which can be fatal. (a) (i) Botulinum toxin is produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. What information does the word anaerobic suggest about the bacterium? ........................................ ........................................ .................................. ........................................ ........................................ ............................ [1] (ii) The toxin is initially produced as a large single polypeptide that has low potency. After the toxin has been acted upon by a protease, two chains are produced which remain connected by a disulfide bond. In this form it is far more toxic. Describe the action of the protease when it acts on the toxin. ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ ............................ [1] (b) A mouse assay, using 99 mice, was used to determine the median lethal dose of the toxin. (i) Suggest what is meant by the term median lethal dose. ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ ............................ [1] (ii) The median lethal dose of the toxin is in the range of 5 50 ng kg 1 body mass, depending on the toxin type and the method of introduction into the body. Calculate the probable lethal dose of the least toxic botulinum toxin for an individual with a body mass of 85 kg. Show your working and give your answer in g. g [2] SPECIMEN 12 OCR 2016 H420/03 (iii) The toxin acts primarily at the cholinergic nerve terminals of stimulatory motor neurones. Part of the molecule binds irreversibly to specific receptors on the presynaptic membrane. The toxin receptor complex is then taken into the cytoplasm of the neurone where the disulfide bond is broken, releasing the section of the molecule which acts to block the release of the neurotransmitter. Explain why botulism can be fatal. ........................................ ........................................ ................................. ........................................ ........................................ ................................. ........................................ ........................................ ................................. ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [2] (c)* There are a number of different strains of the Clostridium botulinum bacterium. Different strains produce immunologically distinct forms of the toxin. Explain why the toxins produced by the different strains are described as being immunologically distinct and how they will be dealt with by the immune system. ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ....................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................ [6] SPECIMEN13 OCR 2016 H420/03 Turn over 5 Termites are highly social insects. They are thought to have evolved from earlier forms of insect at least 150 million years ago, in the Jurassic geological period. They are related to cockroaches. (a) (i) How might scientists a century ago have known that termites evolved in the Jurassic geological period? ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [1] (ii) What new source of evidence might help today s scientists to find out how closely related termites are to cockroaches? ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [1] (b) Fig. , on the insert, shows a termite mound, the nest of approximately one million individuals. The photograph was taken in Queensland Australia, about 3000 kilometres south of the equator. (i) Fig. shows that the interior of the termite mound is full of interconnecting chambers. At the top of the mound some of these chambers open to the air outside. Worker termites spend all their time working in brood chambers low in the mound, where eggs and larvae develop. Explain how carbon dioxide produced in the respiring body cells of worker termites is removed to the air outside the termite mound. ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [4] (ii) In Africa, closer to the equator, the mounds built by some species of termite are blade-shaped, with the long axis pointing North South. Fig. , on the insert, shows an example of a termite mound in Africa. Suggest why the African termites need to build mounds in this shape and orientation. ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ ................................... ........................................ ........................................ .......................... [2] SPECIMEN 14 OCR 2016 H420/03 (c) Most termites eat only dead vegetable material, so their principle food source is cellulose. Cellulose is a polymer. State the name of the monomer in cellulose. ........................................ ........................................ ................................. [1] (d) Termites such as the species that built the mound in Fig. on the insert can be classed as keystone species . Use the information given to state one argument that supports this statement and one argument that does not. ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ........................................ . ........................................ ........................................ ................................. [2] END OF QUESTION PAPERSPECIMEN15 OCR 2016 H420/03 BLANK PAGE SPECIMEN 16 OCR 2016 H420/03 Copyright Information: OCR is committed to seeking permission to reproduce all third-party content that it uses in the assessment materials. OCR has attempted to identify and contact all copyright holders whose work is used in this paper. To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced in the OCR Copyright Acknowledgements booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download from our public website ( ) after the live examination series. If OCR has unwittingly failed to correctly acknowledge or clear any third-party content in this assessment material, OCR will be happy to correct its mistake at the earliest possible opportunity. For queries or further information please contact the Copyright Team, First Floor, 9 Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 1GE. OCR is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group; Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge. SPECIMEN OCR 2016 H420/03 Turn over [601/4260/1] Oxford Cambridge and RSA A Level Biology A H420/03 Unified biology Sample Insert Date Morning/Afternoon Time allowed: 1 hour 30 minutes You must have: the Question Paper * 0 0 0 0 0 0 * INFORMATION This document consists of 4 pages. Any blank pages are indicated. SPECIMEN2 OCR 2016 H420/03 Fig. Fig. SPECIMEN3 OCR 2016 H420/03 BLANK PAGE SPECIMEN4 OCR 2016 H420/03 Copyright Information: Fig. : photo of three rocks permission granted by Mr John Beazley Fig. : picture of tree permission granted Photoshot Holdings Ltd: OCR is committed to seeking permission to reproduce all third-party content that it uses in the assessment materials. OCR has attempted to identify and contact all copyright holders whose work is used in this paper. To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced in the OCR Copyright Acknowledgements booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download from our public website ( ) after the live examination series. If OCR has unwittingly failed to correctly acknowledge or clear any third-party content in this assessment material, OCR will be happy to correct its mistake at the earliest possible opportunity. For queries or further information please contact the Copyright Team, First Floor, 9 Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 1GE. OCR is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group; Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge. SPECIMEN ...day June 20XX Morning/Afternoon A Level Biology A H420/03 Unified biology SAMPLE MARK SCHEME Duration: 1 hour 30 minutes MAXIMUM MARK 70 This document consists of 20 pages SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 2 MARKING INSTRUCTIONS PREPARATION FOR MARKING SCORIS 1. Make sure that you have accessed and completed the relevant training packages for on-screen marking: scoris assessor Online Training; OCR Essential Guide to Marking. 2. Make sure that you have read and understood the mark scheme and the question paper for this unit. These are posted on the RM Cambridge Assessment Support Portal 3. Log-in to scoris and mark the required number of practice responses ( scripts ) and the required number of standardisation responses. YOU MUST MARK 10 PRACTICE AND 10 STANDARDISATION RESPONSES BEFORE YOU CAN BE APPROVED TO MARK LIVE SCRIPTS. MARKING 1. Mark strictly to the mark scheme. 2. Marks awarded must relate directly to the marking criteria. 3. The schedule of dates is very important. It is essential that you meet the scoris 50% and 100% (traditional 50% Batch 1 and 100% Batch 2) deadlines. If you experience problems, you must contact your Team Leader (Supervisor) without delay. 4. If you are in any doubt about applying the mark scheme, consult your Team Leader by telephone, email or via the scoris messaging system. SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 3 5. Work crossed out: a. where a candidate crosses out an answer and provides an alternative response, the crossed out response is not marked and gains no marks b. if a candidate crosses out an answer to a whole question and makes no second attempt, and if the inclusion of the answer does not cause a rubric infringement, the assessor should attempt to mark the crossed out answer and award marks appropriately. 6. Always check the pages (and additional objects if present) at the end of the response in case any answers have been continued there. If the candidate has continued an answer there then add a tick to confirm that the work has been seen. 7. There is a NR (No Response) option. Award NR (No Response) - if there is nothing written at all in the answer space - OR if there is a comment which does not in any way relate to the question ( can t do , don t know ) - OR if there is a mark ( a dash, a question mark) which isn t an attempt at the question. Note: Award 0 marks for an attempt that earns no credit (including copying out the question). 8. The scoris comments box is used by your Team Leader to explain the marking of the practice responses. Please refer to these comments when checking your practice responses. Do not use the comments box for any other reason. If you have any questions or comments for your Team Leader, use the phone, the scoris messaging system, or email. 9. Assistant Examiners will send a brief report on the performance of candidates to their Team Leader (Supervisor) via email by the end of the marking period. The report should contain notes on particular strengths displayed as well as common errors or weaknesses. Constructive criticism of the question paper/mark scheme is also appreciated. SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 4 10. For answers marked by levels of response: - Read through the whole answer from start to finish. - Decide the level that best fits the answer match the quality of the answer to the closest level descriptor. - To select a mark within the level, consider the following: Higher mark: A good match to main point, including communication statement (in italics), award the higher mark in the level Lower mark: Some aspects of level matches but key omissions in main point or communication statement (in italics), award lower mark in the level. Level of response questions on this paper are 1(g) and 4(c). SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 5 11. Annotations Annotation Meaning DO NOT ALLOW Answers which are not worthy of credit IGNORE Statements which are irrelevant ALLOW Answers that can be accepted ( ) Words which are not essential to gain credit __ Underlined words must be present in answer to score a mark ECF Error carried forward AW Alternative wording ORA Or reverse argument SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 6 12. Subject-specific Marking Instructions INTRODUCTION Your first task as an Examiner is to become thoroughly familiar with the material on which the examination depends. This material includes: the specification, especially the assessment objectives the question paper the mark scheme. You should ensure that you have copies of these materials. You should ensure also that you are familiar with the administrative procedures related to the marking process. These are set out in the OCR booklet Instructions for Examiners. If you are examining for the first time, please read carefully Appendix 5 Introduction to Script Marking: Notes for New Examiners. Please ask for help or guidance whenever you need it. Your first point of contact is your Team Leader. SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 7 Question Answer Marks Guidance 1 (a) idea that the oxygen will leak from the connectors so reduce the gas movement or oxygen uptake may not be a good representation of respiration rate in germinating seedlings or a small volume of gas is being measured in the capillary or measurements only taken every 30 seconds or difficult to read the meniscus (may be subjective) 1 ALLOW seal not air tight so will not prevent gas escaping during the experiment or the idea that gas leakage is a problem and needs to be prevented. ALLOW the respiratory substrate stored in the seed will affect the oxygen needed or the idea that if photosynthesis has begun oxygen uptake will be disrupted. ALLOW need to record the maximum volume of gas taken up during the experiment ALLOW alternative wording more frequent readings are needed . SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 8 Question Answer Marks Guidance (b) Variable the mass of the seeds is not given Improvement take the mass of the seedlings at the start Variable the volume / mass of soda lime is not specified Improvement use a known mass of soda lime each time Variable the size of the syringe is not given Improvement use a 2 cm3 syringe Variable the capillary tube internal diameter is not given Improvement use a capillary tube of length 20 cm and a 1 mm internal diameter Variable temperature not controlled Improvement allowing apparatus to, stabilise / equilibrate to temperature, before taking readings AVP 2 The control method must be suitable, and be directly linked to the variable. ALLOW suggested mass values. ALLOW suggested mass values. ALLOW alternative size if suitable for the activity. ALLOW idea that only a linear measurement is obtained not a volume. ALLOW alternative size if suitable for the activity. ALLOW use of a water bath and thermometer to stabilise the temperature. Must be explicit to provide valid data no scale on the capillary tube, no timing, no details of how to take the readings. Details must be workable and suitable to provide valid results scale on the capillary tube, use of timing devices, description of how to take readings from the scale etc. SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 9 Question Answer Marks Guidance (c) dipped into a small beaker and allowed to run 1 ALLOW suitable details of how the red fluid is added. (d) Explanation it is more than 10% from the mean or it is different from the other data at 60 seconds or it does not follow trend for the times for replicate 3 Action anomaly should be identified and excluded from processing or anomaly must be identified but could be included in calculations or repetition to obtain another reading 2 ALLOW it is out of line ALLOW it is out of line (e) mm s 1 1 Rate and units required for the mark. (f) (i) the internal diameter of the capillary tube 1 (ii) the mass of the bean seeds 1 SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 10 Question Answer Marks Guidance (g)* Level 3 (5 6 marks) Describes a clear and detailed experiment that has been effectively adapted for use with chosen invertebrate to allow for the comparison of the rate of respiration with that of mung beans. There is a well-developed line of reasoning which is clear and logically structured. The information presented is relevant and substantiated. Level 2 (3 4 marks) Describes an experiment to compare the rate of respiration of chosen invertebrate with mung beans but there is insufficient detail of the procedure to allow a valid comparison. There is a line of reasoning presented with some structure. The information presented is in the most-part relevant and supported by some evidence. Level 1 (1 2 marks) An attempt to describe an experiment to investigate the respiratory rate of an invertebrate but little comparison with mung beans. If results or conclusion suggested, likely to be muddled or inaccurate. The information is basic and communicated in an unstructured way. The information is supported by limited evidence and the relationship to the evidence may not be clear. 0 marks No response or no response worthy of credit. 6 Relevant points include: experiment mass of invertebrate and mass of beans the same safe and ethical use of invertebrates add screen so that animal(s) cannot touch the muslin bag bigger syringe needed (5-10 cm3) keep temperature constant / same for both assays keep light constant / same for both assays use same mass of soda lime in both assays measuring distance moved by coloured, red liquid at regular time intervals repeat experiments. results and conclusions invertebrates rate of respiration is expected to be higher than the rate of respiration of the beans because invertebrates are moving around metabolic processes require energy / generate heat. Total 15 SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 11 Question Answer Marks Guidance 2 (a) (i) DNA / RNA / nucleic acid 1 (ii) lower / reduce / make more negative 1 (iii) two from 1 strip is impervious to, water / solutions 2 forces water / solutions, to pass through, plasma / cell surface, membrane 3 phospholipid (bilayer), repels / AW, ions / charged particles 2 1 IGNORE ref to suberin. 3 The idea of charge / ion impermeability is wanted here. ALLOW answer in terms of ions / charged particles needing channels because phospholipid bilayer does not allow charged particles through. (b) (i) 2 ALLOW 3,750 m or cm for one mark. ALLOW 1 mark for correct working 3 x 1250 (ii) (with light microscope) no further resolution (at 1250) 1 IGNORE ref to further detail, as implied in question. ALLOW ref to resolution not the same as magnification. (iii) two from stay keep indoors / increase ventilation / wear masks measures to, exclude / not attract / kill, rats/fleas strict / immediate quarantine for persons with symptoms 2 ALLOW (longer term) measures to reduce overcrowding. (c) (i) (stimulates) cell, elongation / division 1 IGNORE ref to action outside the cell, or to unqualified growth etc. SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 12 Question Answer Marks Guidance (ii) three from 1 reduced / no, proton pumping / proton motive force / chemiosmosis 2 photophosphorylation stops 3 less / no, ATP produced 4 less / no, reduced NADP produced 5 no, Calvin cycle / carbon fixation / light independent stage plus 6 no, TP / (hexose) sugars, made 7 no respiratory substrate / respiration ceases 5 3 ALLOW cessation of vital process that needs ATP IF ATP mentioned but IGNORE respiration (as credited in mp 7). Total 15 SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 13 Question Answer Marks Guidance 3 (a) (i) t = 2 ALLOW correct working for 1 mark. [ ] = + = + = + = 50 50 50 50 = / = / = (ii) probability is highly significant, calculated t value is greater than the critical value at / there is a chance (probability) of below that the differences in the shell height seen can be due to chance and the null hypothesis can be rejected 1 (b) histogram correctly plotted for the values two sets of data distinguished by a key or other suitable method to identify them x axis labelled height (mm) and y axis labelled number of dog whelks / Nucella lapillus / shells / class makes good use of the graph paper and both axes are correctly scaled with ascending equidistant intervals 4 DO NOT ALLOW a bar chart or a line graph as neither would represent the data correctly. ALLOW a frequency polygon. ALLOW % of the sample for the y axis if this has been calculated. SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 14 Question Answer Marks Guidance (c) three from positive correlation between the height of the whelk shell and the type of the shore (histogram / data, indicates that) shore exposure has an impact on height Nucella show adaptation to harsher wave action shells measured may not all be exposed to wave action 3 ALLOW correlation is strong or a reference to relationship such as:- taller shell height and sheltered shore or shorter shell height and exposed shore. ALLOW little overlap on the histogram bars. ALLOW the idea that the differences may be due to direct wave action or adaptation. (d) no detail for the random sampling technique was given / Nucella from the whole population may not have been sampled and use(two) metre tapes to set out a grid and use randomly generated coordinates no measuring instrument specified and use vernier callipers with a precision of more than mm incorrect identification of Nucella / several types of shelled molluscs that are similar to Nucella and use a sea shore key to correctly identify the whelk classification of the shore as sheltered or exposed was subjective and use an approved shore classification (such as Ballantine s) 2 Limitation and improvement must be linked for 2 marks. SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 15 Question Answer Marks Guidance (e) one from increase the number of, Nucella used in the data collection / samples replicate / repeat, the entire experiment again 1 ALLOW a value given such as increasing number to 100 from each shore. ALLOW an understanding of the idea that the procedure has only been carried out once for each shore. (f) not valid a small percentage of Nucella sampled and some areas not sampled at all which would lead to skewed data human interpretation of the measurement causes accuracy of the data to be questioned genetic variations or sub species not taken into account valid random sampling techniques mean no bias in collection 100 Nucella sampled in total (50 in each area) so large sample size precise instructions for consistent measurement of shell height 3 ALLOW reverse arguments made. idea that conclusion will be distorted Total 16 SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 16 Question Answer Marks Guidance 4 (a) (i) it (only) respires in the absence of oxygen 1 Must imply that the absence of oxygen is the preferred/essential condition. can respire in the absence of oxygen does not really imply this, as this statement also applies to aerobic organisms. (ii) it hydrolyses a peptide bond between two amino acids (residues) which are joined by a disulfide bond 1 (b) (i) amount that is required to kill the 50th mouse when they are arranged in order of lethal dose 1 (ii) ( g) 2 ALLOW 1 mark for correct working using, least lethal dose is 50 ng kg 1 50 85 = 4250 ng /1000 = g (iii) two from intercostal muscles are / diaphragm muscle is, weakened / paralysed idea that ventilation and oxygenation of blood is, reduced / compromised cells / (named) organ(s), cannot, obtain oxygen for respiration/ carry out aerobic respiration 2 (c)* Level 3 (5 6 marks) A full explanation of why strains are immunologically distinct AND a description of more than one method of action of the immune system. There is a well-developed line of reasoning which is clear and logically structured. The information presented is relevant and substantiated. 6 Relevant points include: immunologically distinct toxins produced by each strain will be (slightly) different each (botulinum) toxin will have different , 3D shape / amino acid sequence / DNA nucleotide coding sequence toxin , acts as / is , antigen immune response determined by shape of antigen different compounds will have different shapes SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 17 Question Answer Marks Guidance Level 2 (3 4 marks) A full explanation of why strains are immunologically distinct AND an attempt to describe a method of action of the immune system. OR A description of more than one method of action of the immune system AND an attempt to explain why strains are immunologically distinct. There is a line of reasoning presented with some structure. The information presented is in the most-part relevant and supported by some evidence. Level 1 (1 2 marks) An attempt to explain why strains are immunologically distinct AND an attempt to describe a method of action of the immune system. The information is basic and communicated in an unstructured way. The information is supported by limited evidence and the relationship to the evidence may not be clear. 0 marks No response or no response worthy of credit. immune system antigen presenting cells ingest antigen and display antigen on their surfaces interaction between APCs and T-helper cells causes production of interleukins B cells activated by T-helper cells clonal selection and clonal expansion B cells differentiate into plasma cells plasma cells produce , antibodies / immunoglobulins by protein synthesis antibodies bind to and neutralise toxins. Total 13 SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 18 Question Answer Marks Guidance 5 (a) (i) fossils in, known-age / Jurassic, strata / rocks 1 (ii) DNA / cytochrome c 1 (b) (i) carbon dioxide diffuses down concentration gradient out of the respiring cell carried through body from cell (to tracheoles) by blood passing out via tracheoles / trachea / spiracles respiration generates heat hot gases expand and are less dense so rise up by convection through the mound to vents at mound-top 4 (b) (ii) shape, large or increased surface area to volume ratio smallest area exposed to greatest heat 2 Response must be linked to context of avoiding overheating / needing to get rid of heat. (c) / beta glucose 1 (d) argument for important, (N or C) recyclers / saprotrophs argument against not a predator large in abundance/ biomass (so effect on environment not disproportionate) 2 Total 11 SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 19 BLANK PAGE SPECIMENH420/03 Mark Scheme June 20XX 20 BLANK PAGE SPECIMEN

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